The Etruscan Tuscania Dice Revisited

By Polat Kaya



Etruscan numerals written on Tuscania Dice



  The Etruscan numerals shown on the so-called “Tuscania Dice” have been read as shown in the table below:

            2          3        4                    5            6

1968 Olzscha                thu        zal        ci        huth            makh        sa
1969 Pfiffig                  thu        zal        ci        sa                makh        huth
1983 Bonfante              thu        zal        ci        sa                makh        huth
1984 Pallottino            thu        zal        ci        huth (sa?)    makh        sa (huth?)
1989 Rix                      thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa
1990 Pittau                  thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa
1991 Morandi              thu        zal        ci        huth             makh         sa

List is from


My reading of the Etruscan numeral names written on the Tuscania Dice differs radically from the ones shown in above list.  They are as follows:

Numeral:                         1            2         3            4            5            6
Etruscan                     pr (pir)     ci (ki)   zal        maok      isha       huti (hlti)

Turkish                      bir (pir)      iki        üç        dört        beş        altı

The numeral 1 which other readers have read as “thu”, I read as “pir” since the Etruscan name appears more like a PR rather than a ThU. Additionally, we have a good reference in terms of the Latin term 
PRIMUS for the ordinal numeral name for "one". 

The Latin ordinal numeral name is given as PRIMUS,
When this word is rearranged as PRIMSU, we find that it is an altered and restructured form of the Turkish word BİRİNCİ meaning the"first". The root word for these Latin and Turkish words is the Turkish numeral name BİR (PİR) meaning "one" - contrary to the distraction caused by the artificial restructuring of the Turkish word.  Turkish 
BİR (PİR) has been intentionally altered into "Aryan" PRI.

Similarly, the Latin term INPRIMIS is also defined as "in the first place, first, chiefly; especially, above all, more than any other".  Another form of this Latin word is also given as IMPRIMIS.

When this Latin term INPRIMIS is rearranged as  "PIRINSIM", we find that it is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish word "BİRİNCİyİM" meaning "I am the first, I am in the first place, I am chief, I am the top, I am above all".  So this so-called "Latin" word is also totally made up from Turkish and hidden into another disguised format.  Thus the Latin term INPRIMIS is a reformation of a Turkish word that existed before the Latin Language ever existed!  Again the root for this Latin word is the Turkish word"BİR" meaning "one". 

Like these Latin words, there are other similar terms such as the Latin word PRINCEPS (or PRINCIPIS) meaning "first, foremost, leading, chief, front" which is made up from Turkish "BİRİNCİ PAŞ" meaning  "the first head,  the first one, the leading one, the chief, the front one";  or the Latin word PRIMITUS meaning "first, for the first time" which is also fabricated from Turkish wordPİRİNCiTU meaning "it is the first; it is for the first time".

So, in view of all these revelations, it is reasonable to think that the Etruscan numeral for "one" was also Turkish BİR (PİR, PR).  After all, the Etruscans were TURANIAN Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples themselves! 



I read the Etruscan numeral name "ci" as the name of the numeral "two" which is İKİ in Turkish. For this let us examine the makeup of the the Latin name for ordinal number "two".  In this regard the following Latin words are given: "secundus, secundum, secundi, secundissimus and secundissimum" which all have the meaning of "second".

a)  The Latin word SECUNDUS, rearranged as (=>) "ECUNSSDU", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish ordinal numeral name "İKİNCİDU" meaning "it is the second".

b)  The Latin word SECUNDUM, => "ECUNSS-DUM", is from Turkish ordinal numeral name "İKİNCİ iDUM" meaning "I was the second".

c)  The 
Latin word SECUNDIOR, => "ICENSUDOR", is from Turkish ordinal numeral name "İKİNCİDUR" meaning "it is the second".

d)  The 
Latin word SECUNDISSUMUS, =>  "ICUNSUDU-ESMS-S", is from Turkish expression "İSMİ İKİNCİDU" meaning "its name is second".

e)  The 
Latin word SECUNDISSIMUM, => "ICINSUDU-ESMSM", is from Turkish ordinal numeral name "İKİNCİDU İSMUM"meaning "my name is 'the second'", that is, "I am the second from top".
Thus, again we see that all of these so-called "Latin" names are manufactured from Turkish words 
and expressions, and the root word for them all is the Turkish cardinal numeral name 
İKİ meaning "two".

So, in view of all these revelations, it is reasonable to think that the Etruscan numeral "ci" was also the same as the Turkish numeral name İKİ meaning "two".  After all, the Etruscans were TURANIAN Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples themselves. With this, I say the Etruscan numeral name CI (KI) is actually from Turkish 



In the case of number "three": the Latin word TERCI, meaning "three", rearranged as "ICTER", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish ordinal numeral name "ÜÇTER" meaning "it is three".

the Latin word TRES, rearranged as "ESTR", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish ordinal numeral name"ÜÇTER" (ÜŞTER) meaning "it is three".

Thus, the Latin numeral names "TERCI" and "TRES" meaning "three" are also manufactured from Turkish!

The Latin numeral name 
QUATTUOR, rearranged as "AUQU-TORT", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish ordinal numeral name "OKU DÖRT" meaning "read it as 'four'".

Similarly, the Latin word QUATRIDUUM, meaning 
"a period of four days", [in the four days from now, within four day of],rearranged as  "DURT-GUM-UIA", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish expression "DÖRT GÜN ÖYİ" meaning "house of four days", that is, "in four days". Turkish word DÖRT means "four", GÜN means "day", ÖYİ means "house; inside".

The Latin word QUINQUE means
 "five" and QUINQUEAGINTA means "fifty". 

First, the Latin word QUINQUEAGINTA, meaning "fifty", rearranged as  "EQI-UGUN-QATI-AN", is the altered and restructured form of the Turkish mathematical expression "İKİ-ÜÇÜN KATI ON" meaning "two plus three times ten" which is of course, "(2+3) x 10 = 50".  This shows that Roman linguists fabricated this so-called "Latin" word QUINQUEAGINTA meaning "fifty" using a Turkish mathematical expression as the source text and sold it to the public as if it was an original word of an "Aryan" language representing the number 50. They then chopped the first seven letters (i.e., QUINQUE) of this long word QUINQUEAGINTA and defined QUINQUEas representing "five".  By this trick, the shorter construct QUINQUE artificially became the "root" of the word QUINQUEAGINTA - when in actuality, QUINQUEAGINTA was the root word and QUINQUE was derived from it.  I must point out that the Greeks havealso done similar tricks in generating their numeral names from Turkish!

The Latin term SEX or SEXTUS means "six" and the word SEXAGINTA means "sixty".

The Latin word SEXAGINTA, meaning "sixty", has the bogus letter X in it - which is actually a replacement for letter combinations ofEKS or IKS or KIS.  When the X in the word SEXAGINTA is replaced with KIS, it becomes 
SEKISAGINTA .  And whenSEKISAGINTA is rearranged as "EKI-ISS-QAT-AN", we find that the word SEKISAGINTA  is the altered, restructured and Romanized form of the Turkish mathematical expression "İKİ-ÜÇ KAT ON" meaning "two-three times ten" which of course is,"2x3x10 = 60" 

Again, this shows that Romans made this so-called "Latin" word 
SEXAGINTA  (meaning "sixty") from a Turkish mathematical expression and sold it to the public as if it was an original word of the Latin language.  They then chopped the first three letters (i.e., SEX)of this long word SEXAGINTA and defined SEX as representing "six".  By this trick, the shorter construct SEX artificially became the"root" of the word SEXAGINTA - when in actuality, SEXAGINTA was the root word and SEX was derived from it.  

Up to here, I showed how the so-called "Latin" numeral names from one to six were fabricated from Turkish.  It is possible that Etruscans were influenced by the Romans and the Greeks in altering their numerals as well. 



About the pairing of numerals on dice faces:

Etruscan dice, like most other dice, is six faced, and pairing numbers on opposite die faces, may have been in accordance with the mathematical rule that the sum of the opposite face numeral pairs equal seven (i.e., 1 & 6, 2 & 5, and 3 & 4).  If the die was eight faced, than the pairing of numbers would be 1 & 8, 2 & 7, 3 & 6, and 4 & 5 where opposite faces add up to 9.  So this mathematical rule continues in this manner as the faces of a die is increased.  Using such a rule would be preferable to randomly numbering the faces of a die.  Of course, in a non-loaded dice, the probability of any number coming up is the same - whether this mathematical rule is used or not.

In addition to this mathematical rule, additionally, they could have considered the following interesting expression in pairing one and six together on a die.

In Turkish, when we write BİR and ALTI (1 and 6) side by side, most likely we would think of the numbers 1 and 6.  But, when we write"BİR ALTI" in a religious context, it could be taken as a Turkish saying meaning "God is One", or "Red is One" or "God is AL" (God is Sun).  It is likely that the numbers one and six were paired together on opposite faces because of this subtle religious sense as well.  

In view of this consideration, when the Etruscan numeral names PiR and HUTI (HULTI) are paired, we find that it becomes very much like the Turkish saying of "BİR O'TI" meaning "He is One" "BIR UTU" meaning "One Sun-God", "BİR OD O" meaning "it is One Fire" and "BİR HUDA" meaning "One God".  All of these expressions are descriptive of the ancient Sky-God and the Sun-God definitions of Turanians.  It is very likely that this was the same for the Etruscans as well since they, too, were Turanian Tur/Turk/Oguz peoples!

In view of all these explanations, I say that the Etruscan numerals on the Tuscanian die are "1 and 6" (PiR and HUTI or HuLTI), "2 and 5" (CI (iki) and ISHA (besh)) and "3 and 4" (ZAL and MAK (maok)).

Polat Kaya