Part-5 "Turkish- Sumerian Kinship"; About the name "NIN-GIR-SU"

PART-5 About the Sumerian name "NIN-GIR-SU"


The name DINGIR.NIN-GIR-SU has been identified as a "god" (male)
figure by the Sumerologists rather than a "goddess" figure [58],
[59]. In fact this Sumerian name actually refers to a "goddess"
rather than "god" because of the fact that the sign NIN in NIN-GIR-SU
is indicative of a "female" figure. J. L. Hayes in his book (Lesson
11) shows the Sumerian writing of NIN-GIR-SU and indicates the name as
"DN, masculine", that is, a GOD's Name (p.117). In his discussion, he
also writes: [60]

"NIN-GIR-SU etymologically, "Lord of Girsu". NIN is used here in the
sense of EN, "lord", as in Text 1."

This is not correct because: a) the first Sumerian sign for NIN is the
female "genital" symbol indicating that NIN-GIR-SU was not a "god" but
rather a "goddess". Therefore NIN cannot be used in the EN sense,
that is, "Lord" sense. It should be in the "queen" and/or "goddess"
sense. Sumerian word NIN is nothing but Turkish "NINE" meaning

Hayes himself defines NIN as meaning "lady, mistress" [61] which puts
the word NIN in line with the Turkish "NINE" meaning "grandmother". Of
course Turkish word NINE meaning "grandmother" is unquestionably a
"lady", a "mistress" and also a "goddess" having the power of a
"lord". In Turanian Turkish traditions, the grandmother, like the
grandfather figure, was also a "lord", that is, a ruler of the family
or an "EÇE" in Turkish meaning "female or male head of a family". Of
course the "Dingir" attribution in front of the name NIN-GIR-SU makes
her a "goddess", that is, Turkish "tanriçe" (tanri-eçe, tengir-eçe,
dingir-eçe) meaning "goddess".

Yet in the case of "NIN-GIR-SU", Hayes calls her a "god", that is, a
"male' person by saying that "His most famous temple was the E-NINNU".
(p. 118) There is definitely a contradiction in identifying this
Sumerian title.

The GIR component of the name NIN-GIR-SU, brings to mind the following
Turkish words: a) "GIR" (KIR/KUR) meaning "country side" (uncultivated
land, open fields, mountain slopes), b) "YER" meaning "ground and
earth", and c) "KAR" meaning "snow".

The "SU" component of the name "NIN-GIR-SU" has been transliterated as
"ZU" and its sign is indicative of "water".

In ancient Turkic traditions there was the so-called "Water Cult",
that is, "YER-SU" (YER-SUB) in Turkish which regarded waters as
sacred. [62], [63] This concept involved rivers, lakes, springs and
all underground water sources as good candidate places of settlements.
Water is essential for life and without water no life, as we know of,
would develop on earth. Probably that is why the name of one of the
six sons of OGUZ-Kagan was "DENIZ HAN" which is reflected into
Sumerian as "ZU-EN" or "EN-SU" from Turkish "SU-HAN" meaning "Water
Lord". Similarly is the Sumerian word "AB-ZU" or "AP-SU" from Turkish
"APA SU" meaning "Father Waters".

Additionally, "GIR-SU" can also be the Turkish expression "KAR-SU"
meaning "snow melt waters" which is one of the main parts of the water
system on earth.

With this background, when NIN, GIR and SU are read together, that is,
not in joined form, they constitute the expression "NIN GIR SU" or
Turkish "NINE GIR SU" (Nine KIR Su) meaning "Goddess Conutryside
Waters" or "Goddess of fresh field waters" as opposed to the
interpretation of "Lord of Girsu". [64] Additionally, the name in the
form of "NINE YER SU" would mean "Grandmother Ground Waters" referring
to the underground waters. Furthermore "NINE KAR SU" would mean
"Grandmother Snow Waters".

Thus, this personification, in the Sumerian form "Dingir.NIN-GIR-SU"
or in the Turkish expression "Tengir NINE KIR SU" becomes "Goddess of
fresh field waters", or in the form "Tengir NINE YER-SU" again becomes
"Goddess of underground waters" which come to the surface via springs,
streams, rivers, snow-melt waters, etc. originating from underground
water systems", that is, "YER-SU" in Turkish.

This is also verified by the following excerpt regarding NINGIRSU from
John L. Hayes: [65]

"The original use of this term was mythological. It referred to the
subterranean fresh waters, which the Sumerians believed lay below the
surface of the earth. These waters fed the wells, streams, rivers,
marshes, etc.. These waters were the special purview of Enki."

Thus in this regard the view of Sumerians and Tur/Turk peoples were
the same. Hence the concept was coming from an ancient Turanian
understanding of the sacred subterranean waters. Therefore, the
Sumerian "dingir NIN-GIR-SU" was the goddess of underground waters as
in Turkish.

Here we must note once again that the Turkish word "SU" for "water"
also appears in Sumerian "NIN-GIR-SU" and in Sumerian "ABZU (APSU),
and also in Sumerian "EN-ZU" or "ZU-EN". However, we are told that in
the Sumerian language, the word for "water" was "A". [66]
Additionally, there is the word "AB" also meaning "water" in Semitic
and Persian languages.

This brings the word AB-SU back into focus. It appears that some
intentional cross-identification has taken place between the meanings
of "AB" and "SU" in this Sumerian word AB-SU. The Akkadians who
altered many of the Sumerian words for their own purposes and those
Sumerologists who used the Akkadian sources widely in decoding
Sumerian inscriptions somehow selected the "A" or "AB" component as
meaning "water" while they chose the "ZU" or "SU" component as meaning
"wisdom". Yet there is another very similar Turkish word "UZ" or "US"
that means "wisdom". It must be noted that Turkish "SU" (ZU) for
"water" and "US" (UZ) for "wisdom" are the reverse of each other. But
UZ is also the name for OGUZ people and also for the ancient Turanian
Sky-God OGUZ. Somehow, in the process of deciphering the Sumerian
texts, Turkish and Sumerian words respectively: SU and ZU for water,
US and ZU for wisdom, and UZ for the Sky-God OGUZ and ZU for Dingir
ZU-EN, were confused. As a result, Turkish "SU" meaning "water",
Turkish UZ meaning "wisdom" and Turkish UZ meaning "OGUZ" were all
obliterated - just like the Turkish words TUR and BILGAMESH were
suppressed. Similarly Sumerian ZU-EN (Turkish SU-HAN or UZ-HAN) was
transformed into Semitic "SIN" meaning "moon" and ZU-EN was also
suppressed. Such falsification and misrepresentation deliberately
distances Turkish from Sumerian.

To verify that Sumerian and Turkish words for "water" were the same,
that is "SU", we need to take a look at the Sumerian signs for the
words "ABZU" (APSU) which is actually written as "ZU-AB" (SU-AP). In
the Sumerian name ABZU ("APSU"), the sign for "water" is shown by John
L. Hayes in his book (p.157 Lesson 14) as a "water basin". [67] In
this cuneiform writing, the first sign is the sign for "water".
Similarly, the same sign is also shown in the first line of Text 14,
read as "dingir AMAR dingir ZUEN" (p. 160), that is, the name EN-ZU or
ZU-EN appearing in many other Sumerian texts.

However, The first Sumerian signs on Line 12 of Text 14 (p. 159) read
as part of the transliteration "ABZU KI-AG-GA-NI" is not the same as
the sign for "ZU". Thus there is a discrepancy between the two signs
giving the impression that the "ZU" sign has been replaced with an
"AB" sign.

Actually, "ABZU" (APSU) in Sumerian writing, is written as "ZU-AB"
("SU-AP") rather than "AB-ZU" meaning "water basin". Thus there is the
"water" concept embedded in the name. Of course the "water" concept
comes from the Sumerian "ZU" (SU) component and not from the "AB"
component as we are led to believe. Thus it is undeniably clear that
Sumerian SU or ZU for "water" and the Turkish "SU" for "water" are one
and the same. Clearly somebody introduced confusion into the
identification of the Sumerian word for "water".

Since the "ZU" (SU) in "AB-ZU" meaning "water basin" is the "water"
component, that leaves the "AB" for the "basin" portion of the
identification. But, the so-called Sumerian "AP" or "AB" translated as
"basin" is very much like the Turkish word "KAP" (KAB) meaning "basin"
or "bowl", or any depression in the ground that can hold water. Any
"depression" is a "basin" or "KAB". In view of this, it is clear that
the Turkish word "KAP" or "KAB" lost its first consonant (i.e., the K)
and became Sumerian "AB" or "AP' by over-eager Semitizing.

These correspondences are extremely important in establishing Sumerian
and Turkish kinship. Evidently intentional "confusion" has been used
to break that linguistic relationship between Sumerian and Turkish.
This reminds us of GENESIS 11.

Regarding the name of ABZU (APSU) John L. Hayes writes the following: [68]

"Abzu. This is composed of two signs, the zu-sign followed by the
ab-sign. However, it is known that the ab-sign was read before the
zu-sign. That is, the word was pronounced something like /abzu/. The
phenomenon is similar to that of the DN Zuen, which was pronounced
/zuen/, although written en-zu. In older transliterations it may
appear as zu-ab.

The original use of this term was mythological. It referred to the
subterranean fresh waters, which the Sumerians believed lay below the
surface of the earth. These waters fed the wells, streams, rivers,
marshes, etc.. These waters were the special purview of ENki.

The term abzu was also used as the name of a large temple in Eridu,
built to honor Enki. Most of the work was done by Amar-Sin, although
it was his father who actually began construction. This temple
apparently stood over a fresh-water lagoon" [69]

Lagoon is a big "water basin" (Turkish "Su Kabi) for which another
Turkish word is "GÖL" meaning "lake", which is also embedded in both
the English word "LAKE" and "LAGOON". The term LAKE, when deciphered
as "KEAL" and read phonetically as in Turkish, it is the Turkish word
"KÖL" (GÖL) meaning "lake". All lakes or lagoons are depressions in
the ground where water has accumulated. Thus the origins of these
English words are also in Turkish.

>From these definitions, it is clear that the Sumerian name AP-SU is a
"water" related name and its water content is coming from Turkish
"SU". As it was in the case of ZU-EN artificially becoming "SIN", this
Sumerian-Turkish name has also been artificially manipulated.

John L. Hayes writes the following regarding the word "ABZU" [70]

"This word was borrowed into Akkadian as apsu, glossed by the CAD as:
1) deep waters, sea, cosmic subterranean water, 2) (a personified
mythological figure), 3) water-basin in the temple."

Again, in this explanation, we see that name AP-SU is related to
"water" based concepts and it is coming from Turkish-Sumerian word
"SU". Item 1, referring to deep waters, sea, cosmic subterranean
water, comes from the Turkish "GÖL SU" ("lake water", "fresh waters"),
"DENIZ SU" (sea waters, salty waters) and "YER-SU (rivers, springs and
subterranean waters) concepts.

Item 2 referring to "a personified mythological figure" is nothing but
the Turkish "SU-HAN"(DENIZ HAN) meaning "Water Lord" as portrayed in
Turkish OGUZ KAGAN Epic. Of course, this personification of the
"GOD" figure is also expressed as "APA SU" meaning "Father Water",
that is "the creator of water" which led to Sumerian "APSU". This
personification makes this name a "mythological name". Another
mythological form of this is the so-called Greek POSEIDON, "god of
waters". When the name POSEIDON is rearranged letter-by-letter as
"OPO-DENIS", it is the restructured and disguised form of the Turkish
expression "APA DENIS" (DENIZ APA, SU BABA) meaning "Sea Father" or
"Sea Lord". Thus even the name POSEIDON and the concept that it
represents are usurped from ancient Turkish-Sumerian culture.

Thus it is clear that the Sumerian APSU or ABZU or AP-SU is actually
Turkish "APA SU" ("DENIZ HAN", SU HAN, SU BABA) expressed with another
Turkish expression. It must also be noted that the English word "SEA"
is nothing but a distorted form of Turkish "SU" meaning "water".

The item 3) referring to ABZU (APSU) as "water-basin in the temple"
refers to a big "bowl" or basin" Turkish "KAP" (KAB). Such a big
"bowl" or "basin" used to be put in a conspicuous area of ancient
temples. This water basin would be like a "fountain bowl" or "pool of
water" that one sees in many city establishments presently.

All this shows that the Akkadians, while altering the names of many
concepts from Sumerian, also anagrammatized Sumero-Turkish words and
expressions to come up with a so-called Semitic "Akkadian" language.

Thus there are many questions about the accuracy and authenticity of
the Sumerian words (i.e., their transliteration and their meanings) as
presented to us all. It seems that much effort has been spent by the
Sumerian transliterators to make sure that Sumerian does not look or
sound too close to Turkish. In other words, scientific neutrality has
not been maintained. Unrecognized links in Sumerian texts are filled
in with "Semitic" fillers. In a similar way, the ancient Turanian
Tur/Turk civilization in Anatolia before the arrival of any Greeks or
other wanderers have also been Hellenized.

John L. Hayes also writes: (p. 118):

"NIN-GIR-SU seems to have been the local name for the god elsewhere
worshipped as NINURTA, a god originally of agriculture and storms, but
also of war. The Two were probably independent deities who were very
early identified with each other. " [71]

Mythologically NINURTA is said to be the son of "ENLIL" [72] which
was the wind and storm god. But mythologically, the metaphorical
"son" of the Wind is the "storm" which is "FURTINA" (FIRTINA) in
Turkish. During the storm (FIRTINA) there are "thunderclaps and
lightnings (bolts of light) emanating from the clouds. In ancient
mythology NINURTA is said to have been armed with a weapon that could
shoot "bolts of light" [73]. This is a sophisticated way of describing

Thus the name NINURTA is very much a name made up from "FURTINA" where
F has been replaced with "N". Possibly this was done as Akkadian
wanderers were stealing everything from Sumero-Turkish in their time.
Mythologically NINURTA (storm) was the one who fought ZU (wisdom)
which is Turkish UZ (OGUZ) personifying the Sun, the Moon, wisdom, and
water (SU). Mythological fights between "Sun" and "Wind" are abound
since ancient times. But such mythological fights have turned into
real fights between sun believers and wind believers throughout the ages.

In the excerpt from Hayes above, NIN-GIR-SU is identified with
"agriculture and storms" which makes her the personification of the
all important element of "rain water" ("YAGMUR SU") and "snow water"
("KAR SU" in Turkish) essential for life, agriculture and storms.

Thus the Sumerian NIN-GIR-SU is not only the personification of
"underground waters, rivers, etc", that is, Turkish "NINE KIR SU" and
"NINE-KAR-SU", but also and most importantly the personification of
Sumerian "SU" (ZU) and Turkish SU meaning "water".

In this regard, this again not only makes Turkish and Sumerian the
same but also makes the Turks and Sumerians the same people from Turan
contrary to all kinds of disinformation.

In describing NIN-GIR-SU John L. Hayes also note the following: [74]

"His most famous temple was the E-NINNU (of uncertain meaning, "house

It should be noted that the Sumerian word "E" meaning "house" is the
Turkish word "EV" meaning "house". By their own admission
Sumerologists say that some final consonants are dropped in some
Sumerian words. Thus it is clear that Turkish-Sumerian word EV
meaning "house" has gone through such alteration where the "V" is
dropped, thus ending up as Sumerian E meaning "house". Hence, it can
be said that Turkish EV and Sumerian E are one and the same.

Similarly, the Sumerian E-NINNU, said "of uncertain meaning", is very
much Turkish "EV-NINE-n-UN" or "NINE-n-UN EVI" meaning "the house of
NINE the Grandmother" referring to NIN-GIR-SU. It is clear that the
Sumerian name E-NINNU is again a changed form of the Turkish
expression "EV-NINE-n-UN".

The verbal suffix "NU" in the name NIN-NU is very likely the Turkish
suffix /UN/ for the 3rd person singular possessive-suffix on nouns,
just like Turkish suffix /UM/ has been replaced with /MU/ the
so-called Sumerian morpheme for the first person singular
possessive-suffix on nouns meaning "my". Turkish suffix /UN/ means
"his, her or its" working on the nouns. Thus, E-NINNU is a
restructured and disguised form of the Turkish expression
"EV-NINE-n-UN" meaning "the house of NINE the NINGIRSU". The infix
letter -n- that I show here is a "connecting consonant" connecting the
two adjacent Turkish vowels. Thus the origin of the Sumerian name
"E-NINNU" is definitely Turkish and there is no uncertainty in its

Additionally, we need to mention another apparent contradiction
regarding NIN-GIR-SU.

John L. Hayes indicates in his book about the Sumerian word
"Ba-ba(6)": " [75]

"Ba-ba (6)" The reading of the last sign is uncertain. The name
variously transliterated as: "Ba-u, Ba-ba(6), Ba-bu (11) (and Ba-bu
(12), and Ba-wa. She was the wife of Ningirsu, and hence the city
goddess of Lagash. At times INANNA herself is referred to as "Ba-ba

The word "BABA is a Turkish word meaning "father". The first Sumerian
sign for BA-BA is a "male" sign. [76] All of these words "Ba-u,
Ba-ba(6), Ba-bu (11) (and Ba-bu (12), and Ba-wa are forms of Turkish
"BABA". There seems to be a contradiction here. The word BABA being a
Turkish word has its source in "APA-APA" meaning "father's father",
that is, "grandfather". Thus the word signifies the "father" and
"grandfather" figure and it is all originating from the ancient Turkic
word "APA" meaning "father, old man".

Yet "BA-BA" is described here as "wife of NINGIRSU" which we showed
above that NINGIRSU was not a "male" but a "female" figure, that is, a
"NINE" (a grandmother) in Turkish. Therefore "she" cannot be the
"husband of "BABA". Evidently there is a role reversal between these
two characters in translating Sumerian texts. Such a role reversal
obliterates the Turkish words NINE (NENE, ANA-ANA) and BABA, and
distances Turkish from Sumerian.

Similarly, name INANNA personifies a "female" figure. Actually, it is
a word composed of Turkish "AN-ANNA" (AN ANNE) meaning "Sky-Mother" or
"HAN ANNA" meaning "Goddess Mother". Thus INANNA herself cannot be
referred to as "BA-BA" either.

With such unwarranted alterations, Sumerian is made to appear similar
to Turkish but not the same as Turkish. All of these
misrepresentations give the false impression that Sumerian is an
"isolate" language.

Since it is relevant and sheds light on the situation in hand, I wish
to share with readers the following excerpt from a book entitled "The
Sumerian Wonder" by Francisco Jos Badiny [77] It states:

". . . . So Hungary was, at the time of Colonel Rawlinson's approach
to the Academy of Science, under the most complete and crushing
political, social and cultural control of Austria. Under such
circumstances, it was not possible for the Hungarian scholars to work
freely and objectively for the identification of the cuneiform
writings. Moreover, any such attempt met with unsympathetic and
suspicious response from the authorities.

The Austrian appointed professors of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, who did not even speak Hungarian, flatly rejected the
statements of Lenormant, Oppert and Sayce that the cuneiform writing
was a Turanian language. We quote the opinion of Joseph Budenz, who
did not speak Hungarian, yet who was appointed professor of Hungarian
Linguistic Science.

<<The cuneiform writing is not an Ural-Altaic idiom. It is possibly an
agglutinative, even a Turanian language, but we firmly reject the
Turanian label as unjustified and unscientific, if it includes the
Finn-Ugrian, Samoyed and Turkish language.>>"

Evidently this authoritarian and lop-sided attitude of the European
"linguists" have an allergic reaction when it comes to Finn-Ugrian,
Samoyed and Turkish languages, particularly to the "TURANIAN" label.
In their view, even if Sumerian was a "Turanian" language, they still
could not tolerate labeling it as "TURANIAN". They speak as if
everybody has to take their "approval" before making any
identification of anything. What self conceit and racism! One wonders
why there is so much intolerance toward the name "Turan" and/or the
name "Turanian" languages. Particularly the name Turkish! Could it
be that they knew all along that the "European" languages, starting
from ancient Greek and Latin onwards, have all been manufactured
artificially from Turkish as we have been verifying with example after

Evidently Prof. Joseph Budenz effectively used an off-the-cuff stock
phrase, that is, "unjustified and unscientific", cleverly designed as
a tool of "sophistry", as if he himself was very "scientific and
justified" in his own utterings. This kind of unjustified cliche
sayings are frequently used by those who stand on thin ice themselves
with respect to the topic being presented and generally get away with
this kind of trick interference and sophistry.

We have the following another interesting excerpt from H. G. Wells who
writes: [78]

"Across to the north-east of the Aryan and Semitic areas there must
once have spread a further distinct language system which is now
represented by a group once called TURANIAN, but now known as
URAL-ALTAIC. This includes the Lappish of Lapland and the Samoyed
speech of Siberia, the Finnish language, Magyar, Turkish or Tartar,
Manchu and Mongol; it has not as a group been so exhaustively studied
by European philologists, and there is insufficient evidence yet
whether it does or does not include the Korean and Japanese languages.
H. B. Hulbert has issued a comparative grammar of Korean and certain
of the Dravidian languages of India to demonstrate the close affinity
he finds between them."

>From this enlightening information, it is understood that the European
intolerance to the name TUR, TURAN and TURANIAN has worked its way
into changing the old name of TURANIAN languages into URAL-ALTAIC
languages. Thus the name TURANIAN has also been intentionally
obliterated. Again this is just like the suppression of the Turkish
names TUR, BILGAMESH and other words from Sumerian texts. Evidently
that is how they eliminate Turkish peoples and their languages from
history. This is a very effective way of erasing the ancient Turanian
civilization which has given so much to the world.

This act reminds us the Latin word "TYRANNICIDAE" and "TYRANNOCTONUS"
both are said to mean "slayer of a tyrant". [79]. Actually these latin
words are similar in meaning to the word "GENOCIDE".

Actually this meaning attributed to these words is not truthful. The
Latin word TYRANNICIDAE, when deciphered letter-by-letter as
"TYRANNIA-CIDE", with the usual Y/U and C/K changes, is restructured
and distorted form of the Turkish expression "TURANNIA KIYDI"
(Turanliya kiydi) meanining "they slaughtered Turanians". Similarly,
when the Latin word "TYRANNOCTONUS" is deciphered letter-by-letter as
"TYRANNU-COSTON", with the usual Y/U and C/K changes, it is found
that the word is the restructured and disguised Turkish expression
"TURANNU KESTUN" again meaning "slaughtered Turanians". Thus it is
clear that acts of "GENOCIDE" were being perpetrated to the ancient
Turanian peoples at opportune times so much so that they had to coin
words to describe their acts. They then assigned misleading meanings
to the words. It is no wonder that ancient Turanian civilizations have
been extinct. Even the word "GENOCIDE' is from Turkish expression
"CANA GIDI" (CANA KIYDI) meaning "slaughtered life".

In concluding, it can be said that all of this discussion given above
regarding the name NIN-GIR-SU once again verifies that the Turkish
language was present with the Sumerian at the time of Sumerians and
most likely was a father language to Sumerian. Both the Sumerian and
Turkish have been subjected to confusion by the Akkadians who
manufactured their language from Turkish-Sumerian words and phrases by
way of alterations and disguise. Even writing words with consonants
alone is a way of disguise and confusion because such written words
can be read in many ways depending on the whims of the reader. The
ancient Akkadian linguist altered Turkish-Sumerian words and phrases
to come up with all kinds of inflected words for themselves which
paved the way for others to do the same. At the same time they altered
and owned the ancient Turanian culture.

In the case of the Sumerian name NIN-GIR-SU, we showed that it is a
Turkish title/name made up from monosyllabic Turkish words. In its
transliteration and/or translation as it appears in Sumerian texts,
its Turkish origin has been suppressed. Together with it, many other
Turkish words related to the name NIN-GIR-SU, particularly the Turkish
APA-SU, HAN-UZ (HAN-OGUZ), EV (ÖY) have been suppressed by altering
forms and/or meanings. This kind of linguistic falsification would
distance any language from itself, and of course, distances Turkish
from Sumerian.


[58] C. J. GADD, "A Sumerian Reading-Book", Oxford at Clarendon Press,
1924, p. 83, line 26.
[59] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 117.
[60] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 118.
[61] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 25.
[62] Prof. Dr. Mehmet Eröz, "Eski Türk Dini (Gök Tanri Inanci) ve
Alevilik Bektasilik", Türk Duunyasi Arastirmalari Vakfi,
Istanbul, 1992, p.107.
[63] "Türk Dünyasi El Kitabi", Birinci Cilt, Türk Kültürünü Arastirma
Enstitüsü Yayinlari: 121, Seri I - Sayi: A.23, Ankara, 1992, p. 211.
[64] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", UNdena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 118.
[65] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 157.
[66] C. J. GADD, "A Sumerian Reading-Book", Oxford at Clarendon Press,
1924, p. 177.
[67] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 157.
[68] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 157.
[69] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 157.
[70] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 158.
[71] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 118.
[72] Zecharia Sitchin, "The 12th Planet", Avon Books, New York, 1978,
p. 105.
[73] Zecharia Sitchin, "The 12th Planet", Avon Books, New York, 1978,
p. 105.
[74] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 118.
[75] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 118.
[76] John L. Hayes, "A Manual Of Sumerian Grammar and Texts", Undena
Publications, Malibu, 1990, p. 117.
[77] "The Sumerian Wonder" By Francisco Jos Badiny with the
collaboration of M. Brady, M. von Haynal, G. Enderulin and
Dr. E. Novotny, School For Oriental Studies of the University of
Salvador, Buenos AIRES,1974, p. 16.
[78] H. G. Wells, The Outline of History", Garden City Books, New
York, 1940, Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1956, p. 120.
[79] Cassell's Latin-English Dictionary, Compiled by D. P. Simpson,
MACMILLAN, USA, 1987, p. 229-230.

Best wishes to all,

Polat Kaya


(Copyright © 2005 Polat Kaya)

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