Re: [bcn2004] Ancient Caria

Dear Ram Varmha,

Hi.  I do not know much about the ancient CARIANS, but there are several words that I would like to share with you and the readers.  

The name CARIA can be viewed in two parts as CAR + IA" (KAR + IA). The last part "-IA", that is, the suffix that ends most country names,  is definitely a distorted or "Hellenized" version of the Turkish word "ÖYÜ"(EVI)  meaning "home of, country of,  house of".  For example, the ending in the name TURKIA (TÜRKIYE) makes the word to mean "home of Turks" - which it is.  With this meaning of the suffix, the name becomes  "home of KAR people" or "land of KAR people" - which it was.  The word "KAR" in terms of Turkish words can be KAR meaning "snow", KOR (KUR) meaning "fire", "KÖR" meaning "blind", "GÖR" meaning "see".

In ancient Turanian traditions, while kings named themselves with the name of sky-God in Turkish, they also named their country with a name coined after the sky-god as well, and again in Turkish.  With this background information, I believe the name CARIA (KAR + ÖY) could stem from the Turkish word "KOR" meaning "fire" for the "SUN", or from KÖR meaning "blind" and referring to the MOON, or from "GÖR" meaning "seeing" and referring to all sky-deities that were supposed to be in the sky and thus able to see the all of mankind and their activities from above.  In this regard, "CAR" in "CARIA" would represent the ancient trinity sky-god concept of the Turkish speaking Turanians. Additionally, it would mean "GÖR" signifying not only the "human "eye" but also the sun and the moon which were regarded as two eyes of the Sky-God.  With this information, it can be inferred that Carians were a Turkish speaking group.

Now to support this view, I want to bring into this discussion some words that are known to be related to CARIANS but are also Turkish in origin. 

There are three words which are also related to each other and they mean "axe". They are the words FASCES, LABRY and LABRAUNDA. There are many entries on the internet regarding these words.  Wikipedia seems to be a good source. 

The ancient Carian, Minoan, Etruscan, Lydian, (that is, Anatolians), Thracians, and many others all used these words which signified an axe, as a symbol of unity, power and also punishment against those who undermined the state. For example we have the following entry from Wikipedia.  Please visit some of these urls in order to see the pictures related to them.

1. From url: :

"The symbolism of the fasces at one level suggested strength through unity. The rods symbolized the state's power to punish delinquents. The axe represented the ultimate power of high justice to execute (decapitate), and has a long history in the eastern Mediterranean: see labrys, the Anatolian and Minoan double-headed axe. "

2. From url:

"Populus Romanus

Lore descending from the first constitution gives little indication of being anything but Etruscan. The people were divided into magic numbers: three tribes, 12 curiae per tribe. The word century also appears, ostensibly meaning “100” in theEtruscan language. Throughout the long history of Rome, a social century of any sort has never been 100. It is now known that many words of Etruscan origin have been given Indo-European pseudo-etymologies. This topic seems to generate a great deal of debate.

The names of the tribes: Ramnes, Luceres, Tities, are Etruscan, as well as the word curiae. The king is most likely to have been a lucumo; certainly, the trappings of monarchy are all Etruscan: the golden crown, sceptre, the toga palmata (a special robe), the sella curulis (throne), and above all the symbol of state power: the fasces. The latter was a bundle of whipping rods surrounding a double-bladed axe. No confederate or associative form of government could have had the power to whip and execute, administered by the lictors."

Polat Kaya: From this reference we again see that the "FASCES" was Etruscan, that is, another Turanian group that gave all aspects of civilization to the Aryan Europeans. 

3. From url:


"The fasces lictoriae ("bundles of the lictors") (in Italian, fascio littorio) symbolised power and authority (imperium) in ancient Rome. A corps of apparitores (subordinate officials) called lictors each carried fasces as a sort of staff of office before a magistrate, in a number corresponding to his rank, in public ceremonies and inspections, and bearers of fasces precededpraetors, propraetors, consuls, proconsuls, Masters of the Horse, dictators, and Caesars."

Polat Kaya:  Although Romans used the same symbol, that culture was not their creation.  They got it all from the Etruscans and other native Turanians who used it as a symbol of their power and authority.


4.  From url:

"Etymology: In English the first appearance of "labrys" is reported in OED from Journal of Hellenic Studies XXI. 108 (1901): "It seems natural to interpret names of Carian sanctuaries like Labranda in the most literal sense as the place of the sacred labrys, which was the LydianCarian) name for the Greek πέλεκυς, or double-edged axe." And, p. 109, "On Carian coins indeed of quite late date the labrys, set up on its long pillar-like handle, with two dependent fillets, has much the appearance of a cult image." (or

The non-Greek word "labrys" first appears in Plutarch as the Lydian word for axe (Greek Questions, 45)."

Polat Kaya:  With the above given background information taken from different sources, let us look at the name "fasces".  The statement that I highlighted with red in item 1 above, that is, the saying: "The axe represented the ultimate power of high justice to execute (decapitate)" is a most important one for the identification of this very ancient word, so-called"fasces".  

The "F" in the word "FASCES" is a replacement for the letter B.  In the Etruscan alphabet, there is a symbol in the form of a numeral 8.  The European readers of the Etruscan words read this symbol as an "F" but in reality it is a "B".  The letter C in the word "FASCES" is a K because it is pronounced as a K.   Applying these corrections now,  "FASCES" becomes "BASKES", which is the degenerated form of the Turkish word "BASh-KES" (BASh KESI) meaning "that which cuts head", that is, "it decapitates head" or "head cutter".  In Turkish, BASh means "head" and KES means "cut" and KESI means "that which cuts".  An axe was such an instrument of punishment in ancient times. Another Turkish expression for "BASh KES" is "BASh VUR" again meaning decapitating the head.  As it can be seen, this function of "fasces" is plainly spelled out in the word "fasces" - but in Turkish.  This double-headed axe is also known by the Turkish name "AY BALTA" meaning "Moon Axe".  This is so because the axe blades are formed semicircular as if half-moon.  The Ottoman "coat of Arm" had both the singled-headed and the double-headed axe in the pictorial embellishment of the state symbol. The Turkish word BALTA (BALDA) means "axe" and AY means "moon".  To see the Ottoman coat of arm, please clik the url:

Thus the FASCES (BASKES) was the symbol of ultimate authority, power and the justice of the kings of these Turanian states.  The FASCES (BAS-KES) was also sacred because it had another religious meaning expressed by it in Turkish.  This other meaning was hidden as "BASh-KÖZ" (BASh-GÖZ, TEPE GÖZ) meaning "eye at the top" which referred to the sun and moon which were regarded as the "eyes of the Sky-God".  It also referred to the human head which housed some of the most important organs of the human body, that is, the brain to think, learn and to create, the eyes to see and to learn and to guide, the mouth to eat, drink, speak, sing etc., the ears to hear and the nose to breath - all of which are summarized in Turkish OGUZ and AGUZ. With these representations, the FASCES was also a tool representing sacred concepts. In other words, it was also a religious symbol. I must also note that the Turkish terms "BASh GÖZ" or "TEPE GÖZ" which refer to sun and moon, have been taken as "CYCLOPS" in Homer's writings.  The Cyclops stories are from Turkish OGUZ stories.  

Since the word FASCES (BASKES) was a Turkish word, and was used by peoples such as the Lydians, Trojans, Carians, Etruscans, Minoans, Pelasgians, Thracians, and others, the KARIANS must also have been a Turkish speaking Tur/Turk peoples of Anatolia.  Thus this indicates that the "fasces" was a Turanian word and concept before the Romans and Greeks "adopted" it.  The so-called "Aryans" (arayans) who came to Europe  some thousands of years later than the native Turanians of ancient Europe, took over the control of the native peoples from within at the most opportune time.  After that everything belonging to the Turanians was changed, disfigured and portrayed as belonging to the "Aryans". 

Curiously even USA has placed this ancient Turanian symbol on one of their 10 cent coins - even though they had nothing whatsoever to do with this ancient Turanian symbol of power and justice. 

At this point it is worth mentioning that the English word "AXE" (where X deceptively represents KS)  is really the disfigured form of the Turkish word "KES-O" meaning "it is cutting" - which is what an "axe" does.

5. We have from url:


"In Antiquity, Labraunda (alternatively Labranda) in the mountains near the coast of Caria in Asia Minor was held sacred by Carians and Mysians alike. The site amid its sacred plane trees (Herodotus, v.119) was enriched in the Hellenistic style by the dynasty of Mausolus, satraps of Persia, for whom it was the ancestral sacred shrine. Remains of Hellenistic houses and streets can still be traced, and there are numerous inscriptions. The cult icon here was Zeus Labraundos, a standing Zeus with the tall lotus-tipped scepter upright in his left hand and the double-headed axe, the labrys, over his right shoulder."

Polat Kaya: The definition of the words LABRAUNDA and LABRYS are also names for a double-headed axe.  When the the word LABRAUNDA is rearranged as "URAN BALDA", the word LABRAUNDA reveals itself as a restructured form of the Turkish expression "URAN BALDA" (VURAN BALTA) meaning "hitting axe" or "decapitating axe" which verifies the fact that  LABRAUNDA was an axe and was used to cut off the heads when required.  So just like the FASCES (BASKES), it was a symbol of unity, power and justice in these ancient states.  This again indicates that the source of the word LABRAUNDA was Turkish.  This linguistic correspondence indicates that the CARIANS were Turanians and spoke a form of Turkish. 

But the LABRAUNDA was also a sacred symbol of the state.  This is also understood clearly, when we rearrange the name LABRAUNDA as "DANRU-BAAL", it reveals itself as a restructured form of the Turkish expression "TANRU BAAL"  meaning "God BAAL". In this case I take BAAL as a name given to God in the ancient Middle East.  You will recall that "BAAL was a name of God. 

Furthermore,  LABRAUNDA when rearranged as "AB-AL-DANRU", reveals itself as a restructured form of the Turkish expression "ABA AL DANRU" (APA AL TANRU, APA KIZIL TANRU) meaning "Father Red  God" or "Father Golden God" which refers to the Sun-God and Moon-God of the sky.  

Additionally, LABRAUNDA, when rearranged as "DURAN-AL-AB", reveals itself as a restructured form of the Turkish expression "DURAN AL ABA" meaning "everlasting Red/Golden Father" which again refers to the eternal Sky-God SUN.  The same expression is also "TURAN AL APA" meaning "The Red/Golden Father from TURAN".  

Hence the word also represented a sacred concept and its source was Turkish.  

6.  The name LABRYS is similar to LABRAUNDA.  ALBRYS, in the form "AL-BRYS" where Y=U, is the Turkish expression "EL VURUSh" meaning "hitting with hand" or "hitting with a hand-held object".  It also means "AL VURUSh" meaning "a stately hitting" which is a "punishment" since the state is the only one to punish the wrong-doer. In this case "AL represents the "state".  The Ottoman State also had the name "AL" in its name.  An axe is a "hand-held object" and does its cutting by "hitting" something with it.  So it is an axe or axe-like object.  It is sacred because, in the form "S-AL-BYR" (aS AL-BIR) it is the Turkish expression "AS AL-BIR" meaning "Peerless Red/Golden ONE" which again refers to the Sky-father God and Sun and Moon. 

Western "linguists" wrogly attempt to associate the word LABRYS with the word "LABYRINTH" which has no linguistic relation to the concept that LABRYS represents.  

7.  The Carians had a queen named ARTEMISIA" which is simply the Turkish expression "AR TEMIZ" meaning "one who is pure and chaste".  The Turkish word AR means woman's chasteness and "TEMIZ" means "pure, clean, white".  The mythologic goddess name "ARTEMIS" is falsely attributed to the Greeks, but, this claim has no validity and is pure fiction.  The name ARTEMIS is Turkish and Anatolian and in one of its meanings it personifies the chaste womanhood.  In the mythologic sence the name has some other meanings which should be dealt with in another paper. 

8.  Please click here to see a Carian coin.
The face shown on the coin looks very much like the face of a Central Asians (i.e., a Turanian). 

9.  From url:



"Bodrum (Greek: Αλικαρνασσός, formerly Budrum, previously Petronium, originally Halicarnassus) is a Turkish port in Muğla Province. It is on the Bodrum Peninsula, near the northwest entrance to the Gulf of Gökova, and faces the Greekisland of Kos. Today, it is a center of tourism and yachting. It is the ancient Halicarnassus of Caria, renowned for theMausoleum."

The so-called Roman name PETRONIUM is very striking. PETRONIUM when rearranged as "P-TENRU-OIM", is the restructured and disguised Turkish expression "aPa TANRU OYEM" meaning "I am the home of Father God".  Such a name for a town is in accordance with the ancient Turanian tradition of naming town names.

Furthermore, when PETRONIUM is rearranged as "P-TUREN-OIM", it is the restructured and disguised Turkish expression"aPa TURAN OYEM" meaning "I am Father Turan home" indicating that it was a city of the Turanians. 

10.  The so-called Greek name HALICARNASSUS, when rearranged as "CUNASS-AILH-ARS", is a restructured and disguised form of Turkish "GÜNASh AYLI ARZ" (GÜNESh AYLI YER) meaning "earth with sun and moon" or "place with sun and moon".  The Turkish word "GÜNAS" means "sun", AY means "moon" and AYLI means with moon", ARZ means "earth", YER means "earth and place".  Thus the anagrammatized name HALICARNASSUS is a name like the name HELIOPOLIS meaning "sun city" or the name BAALBEK. When the name BAALBEK is rearranged as BA-AL-BEK", it is a form of the Turkish expression "aBA AL BEK" (APA AL BEG) meaning "Father Red Lord" (Father Golden Lord)  referring to the Sun again.  

11.  Finally here are some names of Carian kings. From url:

HECATOMNUS    (391-377)
MAUSSOLUS        (377-355)
ARTEMISIA            (353-351)
IDRIEUS                (351-344)
ADA    (first reign)    (344-340)
PIXSODARUS        (340-334)
ADA (second reign)    (334-326?)


"Maussolus died in 353. He was succeeded by his sister (and wife) Artemisia -she invited Greek artists to finish the Mausoleum-, his brothers Idrieus and Pixodarus and finally his younger sister Ada. They were quarreling. When Alexander the Great approached Caria in 334, Ada opened negotiations and became the new queen of Caria."


Polat Kaya:  The above names are Hellenized names hence are disfigured from their original.  For example the Hellenized name IDRIEUS, is clearly an altered form of the Turkish male name IDRIS.  Similarly the name ADA is very much the Turkish female name EDA. But in the form of ADA (ATA) and as queen of Caria, she represents a "fatherly" figure and authority. 

The Hellenized name HECATOMNUS, when rearranged as "ATEM-CUNOSH", clearly shows that the Turkish words GUNESH meaning "Sun", ATAM meaning "my father", and "ATIM (ADIM) meaning "my name" are embedded in the name of this Caian King. These Turkish words are very relevant in titling a king of a state in the ancient Turanian tradition.

Similarly the Hellenized king name MAUSSOLUS, when rearranged as "S-AL-OUSSUM", clearly shows that the Turkish words AL meaning "Red" or "Golden" and OGUZ meaning "Sky God" are embedded in this King's name.  The expression "S-AL-OUSSUM"  is a form of the Turkish expression "aS-AL-OUZUM" meaning "I am one/peerless Red Oguz" which refers to sun, moon and the sky-father-god.  Thus the title deifies him as a Sky God. 

The Hellenized title of this king name PIXSODARUS, when rearranged as "PIR-ADaS-OKUSS",  clearly shows that the Turkish words BIR meaning "one",  ATASh (ATESh) meaning "fire"  and OGUZ are all embedded in this King's title.  He also has a very distinct and deifying name.  Additionally his title means "One Fire Bull" which again refers to the Sun. 


All of this indicates that the Carians had a Turkish speaking Turanian identity before their names were Hellenized.  Hellenization and/or Latinization of words and names creates a totally false and intentionally confused picture of history.  Actually altering the names of people belonging to a Turanian group not only obliterates that Turanian group from history, but also steals away their descendants as people belonging to the stealer. 

In view of all this, it could be said that Carians were Turkish speaking Turanians who lived in ancient Turkic Anatolia. 

As a final comment, I would like to add the following:  In the writing you sent, reference is made to the word MITHRIADATES particularly used as king names by the Greeks.  The name supposedly comes from the Indo-Persian sun-god MITHRAS.  The cultic concept MITHRAISM was introduced into the Hellenic world from the east in the second century BC.  The title name MITHRIADATES, when rearranged letter-by-letter as "ATESHTIR ADIM", it reveals itself as the disguised Turkish expression "ATESHTIR ADIM" meaning "my name is fire".  It is a known fact that those who followed the cult of MITHRAISM were "fire" worshipers. as was the case in ZOROASTRIANISM.  Thus, it is clear that the source of the title name MITHRIADATES was pure Turkish but got polluted into something else by way of anagrammatizing the Turkish linguistic source material. Of course all of these name alterations from Turkish generated an ancient "history" that is totally bogus and dishonest. The modern students of the ancient history are not aware of these facts. 

Thank you for sharing the article on Carians with us.  Take care of yourself.

My best wishes to you and to all, 

Polat Kaya

Ram Varmha wrote:

Ancient Caria In ancient times the coast and the hinterland of Asia Minor were divided into provinces that owed their origins to the indigenous population or to peoples who colonized it from other areas. In many cases it is difficult to determine whether an area was so named from the indigenous population or colonists, or as is often the case, a mixture of the two. Caria is one of those regions whose origins are unsure with conflicting evidence and ancient commentaries giving no definitive answer. Herodotus (484-425 BC) tells us that the Carians were originally from the Greek Islands, subjects of King Minos of Crete, that they were great seafarers and fighters who manned the Minoan fleets. They were then called Leiagians and when the Dorian and Ionian Greeks spread from mainland Greece down through the islands, the Leiagians were forced across to the coast of Asia Minor, Thucydides, the Athenian historian (460-396 BC), gives a variation of Herodotus' story. He
claims the Carians were pirates throughout the Greek islands and that King Minos expelled them when their piracy got out of hand. Pausanias, that intrepid travel writer of the 2nd century AD, says that the Carians were a native race of Anatolia and that colonists from Crete had mixed with them and adopted their name. Archaeological evidence tends to the opinion that the Carians were an indigenous race with a long history of their own. Colonists from across the water most certainly arrived here and were absorbed into the local population along with new ideas and skills that were adopted by the native Carians. The brief mention Homer makes of the Carians in the 8th century BC is that they were 'barbarous of speech' and it is interesting that today in Turkish language the harshest dialect in western Turkey is still found in this region. Right through the Greek and Roman periods the Carians preserved their own identity. Greek and Roman architectural ideas were adopted and pr
so were matters of dress, diet, and religion. One thing the Carians were long famous for was their seafaring skill. As far back as the 8th Century BC the Carian fighting fleet was a feared and respected force, though there is a curious tale told by Herodotus that rather confounds this apparent fame. When Xerxes was preparing his fleet for the invasion of Greece in 480 BC, Artemisia, queen of Caria, not only contributed ships to the expedition but also joined the fleet in person. At the Battle of Salamis when the Persian fleet was routed by the numerically inferior Greek fleet, Artemisia managed to escape in an unusual way. While her own ship was being pursued by an Athenian ship, by design or accident, she turned and bore down on a ship from her own side, a Calyndian vessel, and ramming it amidships sank it with all hands. The Athenian ship then left her alone, presuming she must be fighting on the Greek side; Xerxes watching from a distant hill-side assumed the Calyndian
ship to be one of the enemy and was full of praise for Artemisia's bravery. Apparently none of the luckless Calyndians survived to tell the real story. At it's greatest Carian territory extended from what is now Lake Bafa in the north to Lake Köycegiz east of Marmaris, in the province of Mugla. In the north were the ancient cities of Heracleia, Alinda and Alabanda. In the south Caunos represented the most southerly Carian territory and overlapped into Lycia. The area corresponds almost exactly to the modern administrative province (vilayet) of Mugla. Caria remained intact through the great invasions that swept through Asia Minor without losing it's identity although that identity took a few battering along the way. When the Persians dominated Asia Minor under Darius and Xerxes, Caria was part of the greater Persian Empire. However with Xerxes' defeat by the Athenians and the formation of the Delian Confederacy, the Carian cities came under Athenians way. With the Spar
tan victory over Athens in 405 BC the Carian cities were under Spartan rule, though only for a brief ten years until the Spartans were removed from power. The Persians now moved in again and divided their empire into satrapies, provinces ruled by a local governor who owed allegiance to Persia. In 377 BC Mausolus became satrap of Caria in Halicarnassos (today Bodrum) and he craftily developed Caria into an independent power without upsetting his Persian masters. Alexander the Great stormed through the region in 334 BC and with the aid of Queen Ada, an exiled Carian queen, soon had the region firmly under his control. Queen Ada was installed as ruler and appears to have become something of a mother figure to the eccentrically talented Alexander. The death of Alexander in 323 BC left a power vacuum and like much of the then civilized world, Caria was fought over by various groups though none gained any lasting control. The Romans finally sorted things out and with the defeat o
f the Macedonian King Phillip V in 197 BC, order finally returned to the region. There were political hiccups with the arrival of Mithriadates in 88 BC and Anthony's orgiastic rule a little later, but the defeat of Anthony by Octavius marked the beginning of an era of stable government and prosperity for Caria. Towards the end of the Roman Empire and the birth of Byzantine, Caria began to decline, the population moved away, and the once great coastal cities lost their former power and some of their splendor. What happened in the interior is difficult to know, certainly Caria could no longer be considered a region but rather a collection of coastal towns. On the whole antiquity had been kind to Caria. The centuries that followed were to be less so as Caria became more and more a remote and forgotten region.